For many, a macerator toilet may sound complicated and may leave us baffled and wondering what this strange name means. But in situations when a gravity drain is not possible in a bathroom, an upflush toilet appears as a savior. It has a motorized turbine rotation system that grinds solid human waste into a slurry form, which is easier to move out through the drain pipe. The macerator then pumps clean sealing water in the seating bowl.
It’s a technologically advanced waste management system that can handle heavy load and if maintained properly should deliver smooth operation for years. Its reliability makes it a common choice for public restrooms, but it can perform magic at the household washrooms too. The only problem is that there are just so many different models on the market, making it hard for an ordinary buyer to find the best upflush toilet that is superbly effective and stylish at the same time.
Don’t worry. We are here to help you learn more about them so you detect the black horses with ease.
Top Up-Flush Toilets Review : Comparison Chart
|Pick Name||Thumbnail||Product Name||Price|
|Our Top Choice||Saniflo SaniPLUS Macerating Upflush Toilet||Check Price|
|Also Great||SANIFLO Saniaccess 2 Up-Flush Toilet||Check Price|
|Budget-Friendly||Saniflo 023 Sanicompact||Check Price|
|Top Electric UpFlush Model||Jabsco 37010||Check Price|
|5th||Saniflo SaniPlus 002/087/005||Check Price|
|6th||SANIFLO SaniAccess 3 Up Flush Macerator||Check Price|
|7th||Liberty Pumps ASCENTII-ESW 1/2 HP, 115VESW||Check Price|
|8th||Saniflo Sanibest Pro||Check Price|
Top 8 Best Upflush Toilet Reviews – Powerful Mercator’s
We categorized our top picks based on the type they belong to. Some of these products are one-piece while others are two-piece. Some have low price points while others fall in the mid-range. We ranked our models according to their basic factors like flush valve size, design and look, bowl type, etc.
The aim of our upflush toilet reviews was to help you find what you needed to know before making an informed buying decision. Are you still wondering what is the best upflush toilet? Here we go!
Saniflo SaniPLUS Macerating Upflush Toilet (Editor Choice)
Our teams chose Saniflo SaniPlus as the top upflush toilet for a number of reasons. First of all, its heavy-duty system. The seat is engineered with user-friendly features such as silent closure. This model comes in white color and does not need large water pressure to flush all the contents.
Another thing that makes it rise on top as the second best macerating toilet is the easy installation process which only needs four connections. First is the connection of the macerator or the pump to the spigot of the horizontal outlet. Second is connecting the tank to the water supply. The third is connecting the macerating pump to a small diameter pipe. And lastly, connect the pump to an electrical outlet.
You can also connect the discharge pipe to the bath, washing machine, or the sink. The full kit includes a toilet tank, standard bowl, and a bathroom pump. The inside of the SaniPlus is a pressure chamber that is responsible for starting and stopping the unit, and an induction motor is in charge of driving the stainless steel blades and the pump.
The macerator blades rotate at 3600 RPM which is a better speed for reducing the waste into the slurry. Lastly, the water consumption rate here is 1.6 GPS.
- Weight: 99.7 pounds
- Warranty: 2 years
- Dimensions: 365(W) x 535(D) x355(H)mm
- Induction motor
- 110 – 115volts electricity usage
- Materials: polypropylene, stainless steel, and Neoprene
- 1.6 gallons per flush
- Seat height 16-3/4 inches
- Allows you to process water from sink, bath, and shower
- Consumes less water
- Comes with a two years warranty with an extended three years
- Offers high-quality sanitation
- An enamel resistant to chemicals
- It is expensive
Saniflo SaniPlus’s unique design and amazing features make it the best upflow toilet of today. Its macerator system is outstanding and can turn any solid waste to slurry within a few seconds. Another thing we loved about this product is its high efficiency in powerful operations. And with its heavy-duty material and stainless steel blades, you can expect a long-lasting toilet. Furthermore, its high-quality sanitation guarantees a bacteria and germ-free zone. All these amazing features help it become the best-rated upflush toilet.
SANIFLO Saniaccess 2 Up-Flush Toilet (Also Great)
Another great flushing toilet unit that makes on top of this up flush toilet review and allows you to have half a bathroom in any part of your home is Saniflo Saniaccess. It comes with a tank and a bowl and a macerating pump. The bowl is round so you can be sure that this is a space saver.
The tank is made of vitreous china with a one year warranty. For a single flush, you will use 1.28 GPF, which is WaterSense approved. This makes sure that your water consumption is as low as possible.
The Saniflo Saniaccess just like the first is easy to install. This is one of the best basement toilets that flush up. With just four connections, you are good to go. Connect the toilet tank to the water supply then the macerator pump to the rear plug. Next, connect the pump to the discharge pipe and finally the macerator to the electricity supply.
The inside of the unit consists of two parts, a pressure chamber for starting and stopping the unit, and a motor responsible for driving the stainless blades and the pump.
It is smaller in size, but don’t judge it for its performance since it has a 3600 RPM macerator blades. The system also includes a one and one and a half inch inlet and the same for a two-way air vent. You can easily vent a Saniflo upflush toilet using this inlet.
- American and Canadian standard certification
- 120 volts electricity
- Warranty: 1 year with three years extension
- 51 inches power cord
- Includes a kit of a macerating pump, toilet bowl, tank, and a slow closing seat
- Gallons tank volume
- 51 inches power cord
- Weight: 15lbs
- Can pump grey water from the sink
- Easy to install and clean
- Unique design
- A silent and slow closing lid
- WaterSense approved
- It is costly
- Cannot be used by people with mobility issues
SANIFLO SANIACCESS, just like its other sibling above, is one of the most operational and effective macerating up flush toilets. Though quite expensive, you cannot compare its functionality with any other. Another good part is that you can easily install and fit it in those small spaces. And if you have kids who love banging the toilet seats every single time, then SANIACCESS should be ideal for its silent seat feature. Lastly, you can save the water bills as it uses low consumption of water.
Saniflo 023 Sanicompact (Budget Choice)
What comes to your mind when someone talks about a self-contained waste management system? Well, to most of us, the first thing we think about is a house with all the necessary facilities like a kitchen and a washroom.
But do you think you can find a self-contained toilet too? Yes, you can. Sanicompact offers you just that. Here, the bowl, the macerator, and the pump come in one compact unit. It can fit in any small space in the garage, loft, and basements. It is also a great RV macerator toilet to help you make the most of your travel trailers. At the same time, it is suitable for people with limited physical abilities.
It is one of the simplest toilets to install. You can easily place your half bathroom in any room and up to 9 feet below the sewer line and 100 feet away from the soil stack. It also is highly efficient due to its minimal water consumption. Expect to use 1.28 gallons of water per flush.
This ventless upflush toilet is designed to connect with any sink or bath so you can easily collect the greywater. In addition to that, and unlike any other models mentioned above, it only requires three connections. One is connecting the toilet tank to the water supply. The second is connecting the macerating or pump to the small diameter pipe used for discharge. And lastly, connect the pump to the power supply.
This cheapest up flush toilet needs no gravity flow tank. Instead, one has to press a push button which then makes the flushing action automatic by using the macerating pump cycle. The motor starts and the solid waste together with the tissue are sucked inside where they are ground and pumped away. The macerating blades rotate at 3600 RPM to reduce the waste to the slurry. The process takes about 10 to 15 seconds and the motor stops and the bowl is filled with fresh water.
- Electrical supply: 110 – 115V
- 95° F maximum temperature
- 1.3 water consumption
- Motor RPM: 3600
- Weight: 62.2 pounds
- 9 feet vertical discharge
- 100 feet horizontal discharge
- Materials: Vitreous China polypropylene, neoprene, stainless steel, and CRP
- Occupies minimal space
- Uses minimal water
- Allows a sink connection
- Has a soft-close seat
- Can be used with people that have physical limitations
- Though budget-friendly, it is a bit costly than the regular toilets
The Sanicompact self-contained toilet is one of the most cost-effective units we reviewed so far. If you are looking for a model that is easy to install and operate, then this is the best macerating toilet for you. You can easily set it up with the help of a plumbing diagram and the good thing is- it does not limit access to the physically challenged. Furthermore, it is a small toilet with a very powerful operating system. In addition, it is eco-friendly since it has a minimal water consumption rate.
Jabsco 37010 Electric UpFlush Model
Jabsco 37010 has a clean white finish plus a modern design that can complement your boat. With a dual-function pump, then there is no need for a hand pump or dry bowl valves. This toilet has a push button which, when pressed, it automatically starts operating.
The macerator or grinder blades rotate 360 degrees, making sure that all waste is a grind and pumped out of the system. Moreover, the toilet has a powerful flushing capability, making it an ideal toilet for basements. It uses 12 volts of power to function properly.
Jabsco is constructed with sturdy materials that enhance its durability. The macerator has ten blades each of which are made with stainless steel. Its base makes it easy to install in any place and at the same time, its sizes take little space.
The flexible impeller flush pump is made of high-quality nylon, is rugged, and filled with glass material.
- Vitreous china bowl
- 12 volts power usage
- Baked enamel cover and seat
- In-built backflow preventer
- Flexible flush impeller
- Dimensions: 19” x13” x 13”
- Inlet hose 3 inches
- Discharge hose 1 inch or 1-1/2 inches
- Easy to clean bowl
- Heavy-duty materials for durability
- Stainless steel
- Reliable and highly operational
- Unique design
- In some marine boats, the motors seem not to work properly
- Complicated installation process
Jabsco is one toilet with a unique design that you can be proud to have in your boat. It meets the marine standards so you can comfortably use it without any worries. Its 12 volts result ensures a powerful macerator that is capable of generating a strong single flush. You can expect a germ and bacteria-free toilet since it’s made with stainless steel. In addition, operating this flush up model is less stressful since it comes with a push-button.
Saniflo SaniPlus 002/087/005
Transform that unused space in your home with Saniplus. This two-piece model is meant for installing at 15 feet below the sewer line and 150 feet away from the soil stack. It is designed to connect with any sink, shower, and any bath.
Saniplus is simple to install since it has four connections. The first one connects the macerating pump to the spigot of the horizontal outlet toilet. The second connection is between the toilet tank to the water supply. The third connection is for the macerating pump and a small discharge pipe. Finally, the fourth connection is for the macerating pump and electrical supply. You can then choose to connect the discharge pipes from the bath, sink, or shower.
The inside chamber consists of a rotating steel blade in charge of the macerating process and the motor which starts and stops the flushing process. The blades rotate at 3600 RPM.
The elongated bowl makes it easier to install the toilet in smaller spaces. This makes it a comfortable place to seat. Lastly, the toilet meets the WaterSense certification standard whereby it uses 1.28 GPF.
- Weight: 99.7 pounds
- Warranty: 2 years
- Tank capacity: 3 gallons
- ADA and CSA certification
- 120 volts electric usage
- 104 F operating temperature
- 53dBA noise level
- 1.6 gallons of water per flush
- Easy to install
- Effective upflushing toilet system
- Quiet Flush
- ADA compliant
- Uses centrifugal force when flushing
- The water level of the bowl is small
- It is costly
Saniplus has beauty, class, and elegance all summoned up. This is the best upflush toilet for those who want an elongated bowl that offers maximum comfort to the user. Maintaining its sparkle and glaze requires minimal energy thanks to its smooth surface and you don’t need chemicals to do so. The 1.6 gallons of water is just enough to push the content out of the bowl and this is a great relief to your pockets. Lastly, its skirted design ensures the perfect functioning of your up flushing toilet with a pump that has a low chance of shifting your water supply.
SANIFLO SaniAccess 3 Up Flush Macerator
Saniacces3 is ideal for someone who wants high performance from their toilet while under a strict budget. The pump can manage any sink, bath, and shower. Its powerful macerator system is capable of flushing 15 feet vertically and 150 feet horizontally.
Some customers praise this product due to its easy installation and performance. The elongated bowl is designed to provide maximum comfort to the user. Furthermore, it is easy to clean the toilet due to its powerful flush which maintains good hygiene. One flush uses 1.6 gallons per flush.
You can easily dispose of gray water from showers, bathtubs, urinals, and sinks. If you are looking for a toilet version that can fit in small spaces, you need to include this in your selection.
The Saniaccess3 consists of a two-inch inlet which is located on any side of the house. There is also a non-return valve which deters backflow.
- Weight: 18lbs
- 120 volts power supply
- 3.1 gallons tank volume
- 10 to 12 seconds of normal running time
- 51 poser cord length
- 3600 RPM motor speed
- 104° F maximum temperature
- 1.6 gallons per flush
- Easy to install
- Has high performance
- Maintains high hygiene due to its super flush
- Small in size, making it a space saver
- Conserves water
- The low water level in the bowl
Saniaccess3 is the real definition of elegance and performance. It provides maximum comfort to the user and at the same time saves a lot of space. And even though it’s a little bit costly, it is better off than the regular one piece toilet. In addition to that, it also ensures good hygiene.
Liberty Pumps ASCENTII-ESW 1/2 HP, 115VESW
This macerating toilet uses only 1.28 GPF which increases its high-efficiency. It will be the perfect choice for your remodeling and you can put the half bathroom anywhere in the house without breaking the concrete on the floors.
It has a recent advanced feature called the RazorCuttm. It is responsible for improving the maceration of waste and an easy to remove the service panel, which provides access to the cutter without disengaging the plumbing system.
It has an elongated shape which adds an advantage to its comfortability and its aesthetic appeal. It also includes LED lights and a built-in alarm.
The ASCENT II is also WaterSense approved due to its improved flush performance. Note that this toilet runs on 1.9V batteries which last for three or four hours. So remember to get some but the first purchase includes a batch of them.
In addition, its height is ADA compliant, meaning that it is suitable for people with mobility issues.
- 1.9 volts battery
- WaterSense certified
- Weight: 110 pounds
- Average battery life: 3.5 hours
- Floor mounted
- 1.28 GPF water usage
- Dimensions: 29.8 x 20 x 32.2 inches
- Advanced RazorCut technology
- Easy to clean
- Ultra-quite faucet
- Requires little maintenance
- It is highly water efficient
- Outstanding quality products
- The chances of clogging if too much toilet paper is used
- It is a little bit noisy at times
The ASCENT 2 is worth buying due to its quality features and new technology. You’ll never have to worry about using this up flush toilet when it comes to saving water and to handling your bathroom affairs. The good thing about this model is that the removable service panel makes it easy to remove and access the cutter easily without the need of removing the plumbing. Every toilet comes with pros and cons but what makes it beat the other toilets is the latest advanced RazorCut Technology which breaks the waste quickly and efficiently.
Saniflo Sanibest Pro
This heavy-duty toilet is built to last years and years to come. The Sanibest Pro features a high-quality macerating pump and an elongated bowl, a tank and an extension that can be used to install the macerator in the wall.
The installation is 25 feet below the sewer line and 150 feet away from the soil stack. You can have this toilet in your home, rental building and even your office. The heavy-duty macerator handles all kinds of household waste, including dental floss and sanitary napkins.
You can connect this toilet to any sink, bath, shower, or any washing machine. Other than that, there are four connections. One is from the pump to the spigot of the horizontal outer toilet. The second is from the tank to the water supply. The third connection is from the macerator to the small discharge diameter pipe. Lastly, the fourth connection is from the pump to an electrical supply.
The Sanibest pro functions like the other macerators above. It has a pressure chamber and a motor each in control of operating the toilet. A single flush uses 1.6 gallons per flush which adds to the conservation of water.
- Weight: 106 pounds
- 1.6 Gallons per flush
- Induction motor
- 110 to 115 volts of electricity usage
- Materials: Polypropylene, stainless steel, Neoprene, and C.R.P
- 104F maximum temperature
- 7.35 gallons tank volume
- Warranty: 2 years
- Ideal for heavy-duty
- Highly durable
- Occupies minimal floor space
- ADA compliant
- Tends to clog up if a lot of tissue paper is used
- It is loud
If you are looking for a toilet that is ideal for commercial purposes or public places, this should be it. Its heavy-duty macerator makes it easy to flush up any household waste. In addition, the elongated bowl and height make it easier to be used by people with special needs. But, keep the use of tissues to a minimum level to avoid a clogged upflush toilet.
Best Upflush Toilet – Buying Guide
1. Design & look
Toilets come in different shapes and designs, giving you several options to choose from. A good one should complement its surroundings. Macerating toilets come in two designs – a one-piece, and two-piece. The one-piece is also called the single piece, offers a more refined look, and has the tank and the bowl fused together. This makes it easier to clean, install, and minimize the risk of leakage.
The two-piece model is the most popular one. It comes with the bowl separate from the tank. The good thing about this is that you can independently replace the bowl or the tank. It is also budget-friendly.
There is also another recent design called the wall-mounted toilet. It is installed and supported by the wall. Being one of the most expensive designs, it fits smaller bathrooms and for people with mobility issues. The advantages of using a wall-mounted one are they are quieter, adjustable, and help keep the floor clean.
When it comes to look, you have plenty of colors and finishing options to match with your bathroom’s interior. Choose from a wide range of options including– Antique, Biscuit, Nickel, Silver, Copper, Bronze, Pewter, Venetian, Black, Brass, Ceramic, Chrome, Gold, Oil-Rubbed Bronze, Satin, Stainless-Steel, and White.
2. Bowl shape
The shape of the bowl seat determines the comfort you’ll have. There are two types of bowls, around and an elongated bowl. Elongated bowls offer maximum comfort due to its wider seating space but occupy a larger area. Round bowls, on the other hand, are better for narrower spaces.
3. Gallons per flush (GPF)
What differentiates a regular toilet from a non-flush or composting toilet is the flushing system, in other words, the use of water. The amount of water used in a flushing system is measured by the Gallon Per Flush (GPF) unit. The GPF of your toilet will determine the consumption of water in your household.
And since you may want to save on your water bills and at the same time reduce your carbon footprint, then a 1.6GPF is enough. Nonetheless, macerating models considered economical when it comes to water usage. The average water used for the dual flush systems is not more than 1.6 GPF. Advanced models keep it within 1.28 GPF.
4. Noise level
Another thing you need to take into consideration is the noise level, especially if you have kids in the house. Some upflush toilets are designed to have a quiet flush while others flush loudly.
An additional thing about the noise level you need to look at is the lid. Some are silent-closure lids while some are not. The good thing about silent lids is that you don’t have to be startled while it falls on the bowl. So it’s really important to decide what you want.
5. Maximum depth of operation
A macerating toilet system functions differently from the other standard models of toilets. That’s why you need to take a look at how the sewer lines and the drain pipes are placed. Ideally, these pipes have to be elevated so that the disposal can be flushed upwards.
So if you are planning to set it up in the basement, it is recommended to get an extra distance to get the maximum support depth.
6. Macerating pump
Take a look at the voltage, amperage, and horsepower among other listed specifications to determine the efficiency of the macerating pump. Also, consider the macerator seal too, as this will determine its durability. You can go for a stainless steel pump to get the most out of it.
Another thing, since the upflush toilet pump houses the blades, you should embrace the material that is more efficient and robust than regular sump pumps.
7. Flush valve size
The power of a single flush is influenced by the size of the valve. A large valve can clear all the contents in the bowl with just one flush.
8. Weight & dimensions
Some of the macerator models weigh 17 kg, while others can be more or less than that. The weight determines the ease of installation, especially if you prefer doing it yourself. The single-piece models tend to be heavier than the two-piece since it comes as a whole unit intact.
Don’t forget to look at the dimensions of your commode and the size of where you want to place it. The standard height of a one-piece model is 21 to 30 inches with 14 to 16 inches from the floor to the bowl. The width rarely exceeds 20 inches.
A two-piece height ranges from 26 to 32 inches and the width is the same as that of a one-piece.
9. Ease of installation
The installation process is easy, so there is no need to hire a plumber. Nonetheless, this will also depend on your skills. Make sure there is a dependable supply of water and electricity. If you are a fanatic handyman and have expertise in bathroom renovations, you will be able to install the toilet in no time. But if not you will have to do it in a couple of hours.
Other than that, just connect the spigot situated horizontally to the pump or the macerator. Then connect the tank to the water supply. Install the small diameter discharge pipe and lastly connect the pump or the macerator to the power supply.
10. Price & warranty
How much do you intend to spend on a flush up toilet? And does it come with a good warranty? These are some of the questions you need to ask yourself. Cheap upflush toilets might not serve your purpose though there are some cheap models available on the market. The basic models cost $100 to $250. They are the most budget-friendly and will do the job well plus consume less water.
The mid-range products cost within a range of $250 to $500. These do a little more than the first ones. You can even get a regular dual flush toilet with that price.
Lastly, the expensive ones cost more than $500. Expect certain features like bidet functions, better flushing technologies like siphonic systems and warming seats. Designs with this price are more revolutionized, compact, and streamlines. The smartest models can go all the way up to $1,000. Again, if you want to get a toilet and a sink combo, the price may go up.
Don’t forget to look at the warranty especially for the two-piece. Standard models come with a more than 5-year warranty. Others come with a year or two-year warranty. For the two-piece, the warranty may vary for different parts.
Why Use a Macerating Toilet?
So why should you go for a flush up toilet (also known as pump up or ejector toilets) and what makes it different from the standard fixtures? First, it has a good self pumping working mechanism that doesn’t require the gravitational pull force like the standard models. In this sewage treatment, a chopper pump reduces the solid human wastes to small pieces by using a grinding or blending mechanism. These features give such toilets the status of being No-Plumbing toilets.
The macerator, which is the discharge system, has a rotating blade that shreds and grinds solid human waste into a semi-liquid state. It then mixes the waste with flushing water turning it into a fine slurry that can easily move up the narrow pipe.
The most common parts in any of these models are the multi-diameter, a sleeve, a toilet fill valve, and a rotating blade. These four are connected on the inside of the pump each playing a significant role.
The multi-diameter is an outlet that swivels waste 360o. A valve makes it easier to clean, leaving no waste, a sleeve is responsible for fitting the horizontal outlet and a rotating blade for grinding the solid waste.
Outside connections are also needed for the basement set-ups. Connect the macerator pump to the plug of the horizontal outlet. Make sure to connect the toilet tank to a water supply. Next, connect the pump to a small diameter discharge pipe to an electricity supply.
So what are the benefits of macerating technology? Let’s find out.
You can have a remote toilet in any place of your home without the need to break any concrete. The good thing is that you can modernize your own toilet without breaking the floor.
The toilet has a low consumption of water since the maceration process makes it easier to dispose of waste. But you must install an upflush toilet venting system so sewer gases, toilet smells, and methane can be exhausted out from your building.
Easy to install
With an up flush toilet, you don’t have to worry about extra plumbing costs. You can even fix it yourself as they are easy to install. So there’s no need of getting a plumber to do so.
You’d always want your toilet system to be an easy-to-clean and easy-to-maintain type. You will notice that the up flush models have two components that play a big role in proper functioning: macerator and the pump. The two are enclosed since you cannot face problems with them unless you end up abusing them.
Upflow Toilet Maintenance Tips
Knowing how to maintain these toilets should enhance their overall hygiene and longevity. Once you’ve hooked up your toilet, you can’t just leave it like that for long. It requires maintenance if you want to get the most out of it. We’ve listed all the tips below that will help keep your toilets in a good state.
- Clean your up flushing toilet systems regularly
- To clean, first, turn off the power to the macerator. Pour down your cleaner into the bowl and make sure that it is not highly abrasive. Allow it to stay for a few hours and use a soft bristle brush to scrub the bowl. Turn on the power and flush
- You can also use vinegar and baking soda for cleaning. Sprinkle one cup of baking soda into the bowl and then one cup of the vinegar. Let it sit for about 30 minutes with the lid closed. Lift the bowl and then using a soft bristle brush scrub the toilet and then flush. Use this mixture at least once a week
- Don’t dispose of certain items by flushing down e.g. sanitary pads, diaper and the likes which will clog the system
- Use a high-quality upflush sewage pump kit if you need to replace the old one
- Avoid using cleaning products that are not from the manufacturer
Wrapping It Up
As seen above, all macerators work in the same way. A few need three connections while most of them are good with four. Our recommended models are very close in quality and performance. All are highly dependable solutions for your waste management. They are safe and comfy as much as they flaunt futuristic design language.
We’ve discussed everything you need to know about the best upflush toilet systems. Our explanations are detailed and analytical in order to give you the idea of what you are looking for.
In our up flush toilet reviews, Saniflo Saniplus is our top choice for the level of efficiency, aesthetics, and ergonomics it offers. Sanibest Pro, on the other hand, beats all the toilets due to its heavy-duty performance in public places. There are some Saniflo alternative models, but nothing is as good as a Saniflo toilet when it’s about upflush toilet.
No model from renowned brands like Star Water Systems, Zoeller, and Kohler made it to our final list since we followed a strict selection protocol. These products were good but not good enough to earn a place on our top 8 list.
As you can see, there is no panacea we talked about, instead, we’ve tried to come up with ideal commode solutions in different categories. Now, it’s all up to you to choose which one suits you the most.